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Libertad de expresión vs discurso de odio y homofobia

Por Fátima González Rodríguez

La libertad de expresión como derecho, tiene tal importancia y preferencia frente a otros por ser la piedra angular de nuestra democracia. Se tendría que ver el caso específico pero en la mayoría de las veces, se dejarán a un lado los intereses particulares a efecto de no vulnerar la libertad de expresión. No obstante, esta libertad tiene sus límites.

La libertad de expresión se ve limitada cuando ésta se convierte en un discurso de odio, es decir, cuando el mensaje incita al odio y a acciones de desaprobación. El discurso de odio no es el único limitante, existe otro, y se trata del discurso discriminatorio, que dentro de éste se encuentra el discurso homofóbico. En todos estos casos, el derecho puede entrar a sancionar la expresión de ideas cuando haya una intención de dañar, sea falsa o incite a la violencia.  A esta protección jurídica se le conoce como protección de malicia efectiva.

¿Es necesario demostrar que existe un peligro real e inminente para limitar la libertad de expresión? Es decir, si ¿verdaderamente se está incitando al odio con tal discurso? En relación con las manifestaciones homofóbicas no es necesario, éstas son con independencia de que constituyan un riesgo.

Tratándose del trabajo de quien se dedique al periodismo, la libertad de expresión puede llegar a ser ruda, incomoda o bien, puede no ser del todo recibida, e incluso puede llegar a causar incitación o indignación. En este caso, si el tema de debate es de interés público, la libertad de expresión tiene límites de crítica más amplios, protegiendo las ideas del periodista y también la forma en que las emite. Aún así, no son tolerables en ningún caso, los discursos de odio o discriminación.

Como tal, no hay un derecho constitucional a insultar, pero tampoco está prohibido. Es muy necesario analizar el contexto y la situación en la que se dan, porque no es lo mismo insultar a alguien, que emitirle un discurso homofóbico, aquí ya hablamos de un caso de discriminación y la discriminación por la orientación sexual de una persona, sí se encuentra sancionada por la ley.

¿Qué pasa cuando se justifica por ser “cultura”? La cultura no es ninguna permisión, ni ningún atenuante. La cultura debe respetarse, sí, pero la cultura mexicana es sumamente homofóbica,  proveniente a su vez, de la cultura machista.

Por ejemplo, la palabra “maricón”, viene de “marica” o “mariquita”, que son formas de decirles a las mujeres que se llaman María. Sin embargo, al decirle maricón a un hombre por el hecho de ser homosexual, se convierte en un intento de ridicularizar la feminidad de los hombres.

Aunque se tenga muy arraigado el machismo y la homofobia en México, el simple hecho de que exista, no significa que la Corte tenga que convalidar esas violaciones a la dignidad, la igualdad y a los derechos humanos, basándose en que es cultura con frases como “es que siempre han sido así las cosas”.

Estas palabras no desaparecen de nuestro vocabulario, y tampoco es que de manera muy estricta, esté prohibido decirlas. Reitero que es muy importante ver el contexto. Si se trata de un discurso discriminatorio que a la vez genera un discurso homofóbico, donde no hay necesidad de decirlas, o si se trata de la comunidad queer reapropiándose de este lenguaje que alguna vez nos insultó. Para que el uso de estas palabras no se convierta en un discurso de discriminación, tiene mucho que ver con cuál es la finalidad con la que se dicen aquellas palabras. ¿Para insultar? ¿Para reapropiarse? ¿Como broma?

Tengamos en cuenta que el lenguaje moldea a la sociedad, crea imágenes, y ayuda a crear estereotipos. Acaba fomentando cierto tipo de actitudes de exclusión y justifica acciones negativas hacia estos grupos. El debate, la crítica y la libertad de expresión, sí están protegidos, pero no los discursos de discriminación ni de homofobia, porque entonces estaríamos solo perpetuando estereotipos de inferioridad y de exclusión.

7 respuestas en “Libertad de expresión vs discurso de odio y homofobia”

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Like yours, many of them have great content.

But all too often, they come up short when it comes to engaging and connecting with anyone who visits.

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Hi, my name is Eric and I’m betting you’d like your website cultivandogeneroac.org to generate more leads.

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PS: The studies show 7 out of 10 visitors don’t hang around – you can’t afford to lose them!
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You have customers waiting to talk with you right now… don’t keep them waiting.
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Hey there, I just found your site, quick question…

My name’s Eric, I found cultivandogeneroac.org after doing a quick search – you showed up near the top of the rankings, so whatever you’re doing for SEO, looks like it’s working well.

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Cool website!

My name’s Eric, and I just found your site – cultivandogeneroac.org – while surfing the net. You showed up at the top of the search results, so I checked you out. Looks like what you’re doing is pretty cool.

But if you don’t mind me asking – after someone like me stumbles across cultivandogeneroac.org, what usually happens?

Is your site generating leads for your business?

I’m guessing some, but I also bet you’d like more… studies show that 7 out 10 who land on a site wind up leaving without a trace.

Not good.

Here’s a thought – what if there was an easy way for every visitor to “raise their hand” to get a phone call from you INSTANTLY… the second they hit your site and said, “call me now.”

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Time is money when it comes to connecting with leads – the difference between contacting someone within 5 minutes versus 30 minutes later can be huge – like 100 times better!

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Wouldn’t that be cool?

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Good day,

My name is Eric and unlike a lot of emails you might get, I wanted to instead provide you with a word of encouragement – Congratulations

What for?

Part of my job is to check out websites and the work you’ve done with cultivandogeneroac.org definitely stands out.

It’s clear you took building a website seriously and made a real investment of time and resources into making it top quality.

There is, however, a catch… more accurately, a question…

So when someone like me happens to find your site – maybe at the top of the search results (nice job BTW) or just through a random link, how do you know?

More importantly, how do you make a connection with that person?

Studies show that 7 out of 10 visitors don’t stick around – they’re there one second and then gone with the wind.

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You have customers waiting to talk with you right now… don’t keep them waiting.
CLICK HERE http://jumboleadmagnet.com to try Talk With Web Visitor now.

If you’d like to unsubscribe click here http://jumboleadmagnet.com/unsubscribe.aspx?d=cultivandogeneroac.org

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